The serotonin transporter gene encodes an
The serotonin transporter gene () encodes an integral membrane protein that transports serotonin from the synaptic spaces into the presynaptic neurons. The encoded protein terminates the action of serotonin and recycles it in a sodium-dependent way. This protein is a target of psychomotor stimulants, such as amphetamines and cocaine. It has been associated with anxiety in human models, and many antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs have their Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate at this receptor. Genetic polymorphisms in were associated with individual predisposition to anxiety and depression.,
Considering BMG as a complex condition, our hypothesis is that polymorphisms in the and genes may be associated with BMG occurrence. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether there are any associations among BMG, genetic polymorphisms in and and anxiety.
Materials and Methods
Discussion BMG is a complex multifactorial condition in which the contribution of each factor remains unclear. Several studies3, 4, 5, 6, 7 have sought to show the associations among the clinical, psychological, immunologic, and genetic parameters. These studies where performed to elucidate this and to search for more effective treatments when symptoms are associated with this condition. The relationship of between BMG and emotional stress was observed more than a century ago in clinical examinations and were associated with stressful situations experienced by individuals. Current studies have supported the hypothesis of strong emotional and psychological influences in BMG.1, 6 Our data corroborate with those from previous studies. When HAM-A scores were considered in the multiple regression analysis, every 1-point increase in the anxiety score represented an 8% increase in the risk of BMG, independent of genotypes. The HAM-A rating scale is widely used in psychology for measuring anxiety levels. It was previously used to evaluate patients with BMG and demonstrated higher anxiety levels in these patients. This scale was selected on the basis of acceptable interrater reliability. It was the first anxiety rating scale developed and has been validated and translated into many languages, including Portuguese. Unlike other scales, the HAM-A scale evaluates specific symptoms of anxiety, such as somatic manifestations. We identified a strong association between general anxiety and BMG and between specific anxiety characteristics and BMG. In the psychological domain of the HAM-A scale, we found that tension, insomnia, and intellectual aspects were involved. In the somatic domain, we found that muscular, sensory, and genitourinary aspects were related with to the occurrence of BMG. Inflammatory mediators, such as the IL-8 and IL-6;1, 6 growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor; immunologic factors, such as Langerhans cell; and the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), TNF-α, and salivary cortisol are associated with BMG. Some studies6, 7,27, 28, 29 have investigated the genetic associations in BMG and suggested a genetic basis for BMG development. We studied 2 novel genes—COMT and 5HTT—which were previously associated with psychological and emotional aspects.10, 11, 12, 13 COMT gene haplotypes are associated with fibromyalgia,10, 30 neuropsychiatric disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia. 5HTT polymorphisms have been associated with anxiety,12, 13 depressive symptoms,13, 14 pain,21, 33 thermal grill illusion, pediatric migraine, and premenopausal and perimenopausal hot flashes. The association between psoriasis and BMG is well established in the literature. BMG is considered an oral manifestation of psoriasis by some authors.36, 37 Some authors7, 21 have shown a positive association between the causative gene of psoriasis, namely, HLA-C*06, and BMG. For this reason, we excluded patients with this disease in our sample. In addition, BMG is associated with allergies and anxiety, which was not evaluated in our study.