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  • As described above we designed and synthesized


    As described above, we designed and synthesized a new 1,4-di-substituted isoquinoline lead compound, and was identified as a ligand with moderate potency for the CRTH2 receptor. We initially we examined the effects of the steric factor of R group on the CRTH2 binding potency (). When the methyl group was replaced with a bulky substituent such as a phenyl (), cyclohexyl (), 2-naphthyl (), or 1-indol-2-yl group (), the binding affinity of the resulting compounds was dramatically enhanced (: IC=7.9nM, : IC=14nM, : IC=4.0nM, : IC=3.5nM) as compared with the potency of . By contrast, a 4-pyridyl () or 2-pyrimidyl () moiety led to little improvement in potency. These results suggested that the steric factor of R group played a key role in increasing CRTH2 potency. With these in vitro data in hand, further SAR studies of were conducted to examine the effects of substituents of the terminal phenyl ring on CRTH2 binding affinity. Incorporation of a chlorine Quercitrin australia into the or position of the phenyl group led to an increase in binding potency (: IC=3.2nM, : IC=3.4nM), while the installation of a chlorine atom into the position resulted in a 6-fold decrease in potency compared with . With regard to the substituent, a trifluoromethyl group or a methoxy group was tolerated, and these compounds exhibited single digit nanomolar potency (: IC=4.9nM, : IC=7.3nM). In addition, the - and di-substituted phenyl group was found to be well tolerated (: IC=19nM). Next, we examined the rough SAR of the amide linker moiety of (). Replacement of the amide linker with an propanamide linker was tolerated in CRTH2 binding affinity (: IC=13nM). When the propenamide linker was incorporated in place of the amide linker, the binding affinity of the resulting compound (IC=4.0nM) increased by a factor of 4. By contrast, an N-methylamide , which was devoid of the hydrogen bond donor NH, showed a 15-fold decrease in binding affinity (IC=210nM). These data suggested that the hydrogen bond donor (NH) played an important role in maintaining the high binding affinity. Furthermore, replacement of the amide moiety of with an aminomethylene tether () maintained potent CRTH2 binding affinity (IC=6.1nM), while the sulfonamide linker () led to a significant reduction in the binding (: IC=340nM). Replacement with an oxymethylene linker resulted in a slight loss of the potency (: IC=38nM). Interestingly, the inverse amide linker () retained potent binding affinity (IC=10nM). These data supported the importance of the hydrogen bond donor (NH) in the linker moiety of the isoquinoline Quercitrin australia chemotype. Subsequently, we examined the effects of substituents around the carboxylic acid moiety on CRTH2 binding affinity (). The carboxylic acid moiety is shared with the representative CRTH2 antagonists and is essential for CRTH2 activity. Germinal dimethylation of the methylene moiety next to the carboxylic acid resulted in a 25-fold drop in potency (: IC=200nM) compared with the original compound . Insertion of an oxygen atom between the carboxymethyl moiety and heteroaryl group resulted in a slight loss in potency (: IC=25nM). These data suggest that the binding space of the CRTH2 receptor, where the acid moiety of the antagonists interacted, is limited. In addition, these isoquinoline derivatives were functionally active and behaved as antagonists of PGD driven Ca flux in KB8 cells expressing human CRTH2., One of the most potent antagonists, (IC=19nM), was tested in a chemotaxis assay to determine its effectiveness (IC=23nM), which was in good agreement with the CRTH2 antagonist potency. Furthermore, sufficient level of selectivity was found for binding to CRTH2 over the DP1 prostanoid receptor (IC>1μM) and COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes (IC>10μM). In conclusion, we have identified the novel isoquinoline acetic acid chemotype as a potent CRTH2 antagonist. SAR of the scaffold was explored, resulting in the identification of the compound (), which is a selective functional antagonist of CRTH2. Studies are ongoing to explore the utility of these compounds in inflammatory disease models and will be reported in due course.